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— Written by Triangles on June 27, 2015 • updated on January 20, 2019 • ID 4 —
Python logging introduces lots of concepts and configuration options. I'm going to smooth them out for good.
Dealing with the Logging package in Python requires to understand a couple of concepts. I start with a little bit of boring theory. Since this is an ongoing research, you may find some mistakes here and there. I will update this article as my discovery continues.
In Python you print logs with instances of the
Logger class. Loggers are hierachical objects, organized by a sort of namespace tree. They reflect the structure of your app and the various modules/packages you import. The root of the hierarchy is called the root logger (or root for brevity): you typically deal with it in your application's entry point (e.g.
Thanks to that hierarchy, you can define which logger should output its stuff or enable/disable the entire chain completely. In a common scenario you create a logger for each module/package of your app and use it right away to print messages, without any initial setup. They are the child loggers, after all. Then you configure how the entire family of loggers works in the root logger (e.g. in your
main() entry point).
While logging in Python, there are basically four objects working together. The logger is what you call when you actually want to print a message somewhere. A handler grabs that message and redirects it to a particular destination: console output, file, network and so on. A formatter defines the layout of each message string. Finally a filter gives you the ability to specify what to log, and what to mute, instead. I've never had the urge to use a filter, so I will leave it out for now. Configuring a logger means to tell those four objects how they should interact.
I'm writing a very simple app, which is composed of a
main.py and a
core.py module, and I want to log some messages. The first step is importing the logging module and initialize an object.
# core.py import logging log = logging.getLogger(__name__)
I have just created a logger based on the module's fully qualified name (
__name__). This is a common best practice and you should stick with it. Now I can start logging with the following methods:
#core.py def do_something(): log.debug('debug message') log.info('info message') log.warning('warning message') log.error('error message') log.critical('critical message') log.log('log message') log.exception('exception message')
The next step is to configure the logger so that I can actually output those messages wherever needed.
The Logging configuration occurs right in my
main.py file, using a sub-module called
logging.config. Remember: I'm configuring the root logger now, because I am at the top level of my application.
# main.py import core import logging.config logging.config.fileConfig('/path/to/my/configuration.ini') core.do_something()
I import my
core module (and use it) and
logging.config, telling it where to retrieve the configuration file. That's basically it: we are done with
This is the part I found to be the most tricky. First of all you have to define your four logging objects (actually three: I leave out the filter).
[loggers] keys=root,core [handlers] keys=consoleHandler [formatters] keys=defaultFormatter
I'm just giving some names here: I have two loggers, root and core (the one in my
core.py module, remember?), a handler I called consoleHandler and a formatter defaultFormatter. I invented those names. Root logger must be always defined in this file, otherwise Python complains about it.
Now, for each logger, I define some properties:
[logger_root] handlers=consoleHandler [logger_core] handlers=consoleHandler level=DEBUG qualname=core propagate=0
First of all, take care of the syntax
[logger_<your-logger-name>]. For the root logger I choose to handle it with consoleHandler. I do the same for the core logger, but I also define:
core.pywith the instruction
logging.getLogger(__name__), and there
__name__corresponds to core;
We are done with the loggers. Now I proceed to configure the formatter and the handler:
[handler_consoleHandler] class=logging.StreamHandler formatter=defaultFormatter args=(sys.stdout,) [formatter_defaultFormatter] format=%(levelname)s %(asctime)s %(filename)s - %(message)s
The same syntax applies here:
My consoleHandler uses:
logging.StreamHandlerto output the messages. That class simply redirects any string to the console;
Finally my defaultFormatter formats the strings according to my needs.
When you run a Python script as
python script.py, the file you feed into the Python interpreter is a module itself and its fully qualified name is
__main__. This is why it is also called the main module. So if you want to print log messages from the main module you need to include it too in the configuration file, like this:
[loggers] keys=root,main,[...] [...] [logger_main] handlers=consoleHandler level=DEBUG qualname=__main__ propagate=0
It took me a while to figure it out!
List of handlers and their parameters: https://docs.python.org/3.4/library/logging.handlers.html
List of formatting parameters: https://docs.python.org/3.4/library/logging.html#logrecord-attributes
List of debug levels: https://docs.python.org/3.4/howto/logging.html#when-to-use-logging
Antonym.org - A real Python logging example (link)
Pythonlibrary.org - Python 101: An Intro to logging (link)
Eric.themoritzfamily.com - Learning Python logging (link)
Docs.python.org - Logging HowTo (link)